FAQ Frequently Asked Questions

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The thermal conductivity coefficient lambda ( λ ) expresses the ability of a material to conduct heat, i.e. its thermal conductivity. It is the thermal energy (heat) that passes through a building structure (bricks, insulation, plaster, etc.) The heat transfer coefficient expresses how much heat passes through 1 m² of the structure when there is a temperature difference on both sides of the structure.

The basic quantity telling about the thermal insulation capacity of a building structure is the thermal conductivity coefficient λ (lambda) with the unit W/m.K, watt per metre kelvin (which is more often written W.m-1.K-1 or Wm-1K-1).

Lambda and reflective insulating coatings


Lambda denotes the coefficient of heat transfer through building materials. The heat transfer coefficient (lambda) expresses how much heat passes through 1 m² of the structure when the temperature difference on both sides of the structure is different.

Reflective insulating coatings work on the principle of reflection, i.e. heat is reflected back from their surface. Indoors back into the room, outdoors back into the atmosphere. This makes lambda for structures where reflective insulating coatings are used completely meaningless, because these coatings reflect 93.5% of all heat radiation and absorb the remaining 6.5%. In this case, there is no heat transfer (leakage) through the building structure.

In the case of the use of standard calculation techniques and the lambda calculation methodology, the result would be that a layer of approximately 20 cm thick coating is required. This calculation is way by not including according to the old standards the use of reflective technologies in construction. Reflective insulating coatings work on the principle of radiant heat. The calculation of radiant heat is not included in these standards as they were created before the use of reflective insulating coatings.

Stefan-Boltzmann law


This law states that the total radiant intensity of an absolutely black body, that is, the total amount of energy radiated by a unit area per unit time (in watts per square meter), is proportional to the fourth power of its temperature in kelvins.

The Slovenian mathematician and physicist Jozef Stefan (1835-1893) found in 1879, by measuring the intensity of radiation from a conical cavity, that the intensity of radiation is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature. His pupil, Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906), deduced from the idea that radiation inside a cavity behaves like an ideal gas. For an absolutely black body, H = σT4 , where σ = 5.67.10-8 W.m-2.K-4 is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. The relation allows one to calculate the total energy radiated by any body of temperature T from a unit area per unit time.

By studying the radiation of a so-called ideal black body, physicists have discovered a connection between the amount of energy released by the radiation of a black body and its temperature. They found that the radiation energy of a body depends on the fourth power of its absolute temperature. (Since the system writes exponents in the line with the base, I write E where necessary in the sense of exponent)

I = ϭ TE4

Where I is the radiation intensity, ϭ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and T is the thermodynamic temperature in Kelvin. This equation is called the Stefan-Boltzmann law. For example, ice at a temperature of 273 K (Kelvin) , i.e. 0 °C, has an emissivity of 315.6 W/m², i.e. it radiates heat even though we would certainly swear that it "turns white as ice". This is because our body has a temperature of 36 °C (309 K) and thus emits more energy, specifically according to the above equation 516.9 W/m², when we put ice on our hand we feel cold as the ice takes away the heat we emit and the ice turns to water.

Boiling water already emits 1100 W/m² at a temperature of 373 K. So in general, the higher the temperature of a body, the more heat it radiates and the relationship is far from linear, but the radiated heat increases by an exponent of 4 for the parameter of the body, which is the thermodynamic temperature measured in Kelvin. Only a body that had a temperature of 0 K would not radiate any energy, from which physicists then derived the theorem about the impossibility of reaching absolute zero.

Planck's law of radiation


Any body, especially one heated to a high temperature, emits thermal electromagnetic radiation due to thermal excitation of atoms. When radiation strikes a body, the body can absorb (absorb) or reflect the radiation.

According to Kirchhoff's law of radiation, the continuous spectrum (containing electromagnetic waves of all wavelengths) emitted by real bodies depends on both their temperature and their absorption capacity. Therefore, a physical model, the so-called blackbody, is introduced to describe radiation.

This body perfectly absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, so that no radiation is reflected or transmitted. The blackbody radiation then depends only on its thermodynamic temperature. The more radiation the black body absorbs, the more its temperature increases - i.e. the black body will emit thermal radiation. The amount of radiation absorbed depends on the colour (black bodies absorb the most) and the surface (shiny bodies reflect radiation, whereas dull bodies absorb more radiation).

The radiation from a blackbody can be thought of as a hollow cube with a very small opening into the cavity. The inner surface of the cavity is a matte black surface. Radiation entering the cavity through the small hole is absorbed after repeated reflections, i.e. the small hole appears to the outside as an absolutely black body (it absorbs all the incident radiation).

Also, the radiation from the Sun can be compared to that of a blackbody with a temperature of about 5800 K. The Sun can be considered an absolute blackbody because the volume in which the radiation is produced is large compared to the surface through which the radiation is received. The surface of the Sun is therefore a kind of "hole in the cavity".

In 1900, Max Planck put forward the simplifying hypothesis that a black body cannot radiate or absorb energy in arbitrary amounts, but discontinuously in quanta. He then assigned to each quantum of radiation an energy that is directly proportional to the frequency of the radiation.

E is the energy of a quantum of radiation
f is its frequency
l the wavelength
c the speed of light in vacuum
h Planck's constant (h = 6.626 × 10-34 Js)

Planckův vyzařovací zákon

Based on this simplification, he constructed an equation in 1900 that describes the radiation of an absolutely black body in all regions of the electromagnetic wave spectrum, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1918. This equation became the basis for quantum physics. Hλ is the spectral intensity density of radiation defined as the amount of energy incident per unit wavelength interval, k is Boltzmann's constant.

What is reflective insulating coating?


Reflective insulating coatings (sometimes incorrectly referred to as thermo-reflective coatings) are coatings composed of a binder and a filler in the form of ceramic or glass microspheres of several tens of microns in size. Due to their low conductivity, these microsphere coatings prevent heat transfer and reduce the surface temperature of the treated surfaces.

How these coatings work?


Reflective insulating coatings work on the principle of reflectivity, whereby based on their composition they reflect more than 93,5 % of thermal radiation (TSR). The rest of the radiation is absorbed by the coating and due to the content of microspheres, the coating has a low thermal conductivity and thus prevents heat transfer. The reflective and insulating properties of the coating are due to the microspheres contained in the dispersion. These microspheres ensure high reflectivity in the visible spectrum and also in the near-infrared spectrum.

What is TSR?


Total solar reflectance, or TSR for short, is a measure of the percentage of solar radiation that a surface reflects. TSR is usually displayed as a percentage between 0% and 100%. The higher the percentage, the more effectively the surface reflects solar radiation.

Why the coating is so light?


THRcoating ALPHA coatings contain a high percentage of microspheres, which are lighter than the dispersion in which they are coated. The greater the amount of microspheres, the better the reflective insulating properties of the coating. This is why one litre of THRcoating weighs around half a kilogram.

What is dispersion?


A dispersion is a binder - an aqueous solution that binds the microspheres in the coating. It is therefore sometimes referred to as "waterborne paint". Dispersion binders stand out mainly for their protective properties. They are also characterised by very good breathability and UV resistance.

What are microspheres?


Microspheres are hollow glass or ceramic spheres a few microns in size. To give you an idea, 1000 µ (microns) = 1 mm. Microspheres form stable cavities, resulting in low thermal conductivity and are non-flammable. They reduce the density and weight of the coating.

How THRcoating ALPHA coatings are applied?


Coatings can be applied with a brush, roller or Airless device. For ALPHA INNER or ABAMAL coatings, a flocking roller is ideal, or for mineral plasters, a roller with a medium nap. For ALPHA TEMPER or ANTICONDENS coatings it is better to apply with an airless device.

Will I save on energy costs??


If you apply coatings to your house, you can save even a few tens of percent on your energy bill. THRcoating ALPHA coatings prevent heat transfer (leakage) from the building through the building structure. The coating makes the wall surface feel warm to the touch as it evenly distributes heat across the wall and prevents heat from escaping. The heat from the radiator does not penetrate the masonry, but returns to the room.

Can the coating be tinted?


Yes, selected products can be tinted with a water-based pigment.

Where can I apply?


The THRcoating industrial product line is designed for all metal surfaces (steel, stainless steel, aluminum, etc.). The construction product line can be applied to mineral plasters, concrete substrates, drywall, and more. ALPHA FLEXIBLE can be used to coat PVC films, asphalt strips, plastics and other flexible materials.

What is the lifetime?


The lifetime of the product is several decades, if there is no mechanical damage to the coating.

How is product life tested?


The durability of all coatings is tested in climate chambers. The climate chamber verifies in which climatic conditions the coating can withstand all weather conditions. Temperature variations from -70 °C to +180 °C and a humidity range of 10 - 98 % r.v. are tested. The climate chamber alternates between cold, heat, humidity, rain, frost... These tests then determine how long the coating will last on your house or facility.

Can be diluted with paint?


The coating is ready for application immediately. Only with some products such as ALPHA TEMPER a small amount of water is added for better mixing (approx. 200 - 400 ml, according to the technical data sheet). In the case of tinted coatings, a maximum of 3% waterborne pigment can be added to the entire package. When applying with airless equipment, the dilution with water is higher for better application.

Can the coating be thinned?


The coating is ready for application immediately. Only with some products, such as ALPHA TEMPER, a small amount of water is added for better mixing (approx. 200-400 ml, according to the technical data sheet). In the case of tinted coatings, a maximum of 3% of waterborne pigment can be added to the whole package.

What does the coating look like?


THRcoating is white. Whiteness is 96 %.

Why is the coating denser than conventional paints?


THRcoating ALPHA is thicker and denser due to its microsphere content. In a way, it is not a conventional coating, but a functional coating. Some products from the industrial range will form a thicker layer on the surface when stored for longer periods of time, which can be easily spread.

How to mix the coating?


Mix the coating with a drill mixer or a conventional electric construction mixer. It is ideal to mix at medium speed (150 rpm) to avoid air bubbles. Mix for a few minutes to ensure that the entire coating becomes consistent and looks like thick "Greek yogurt". For longer applications, it is a good idea to re-mix the coating every 40 minutes.

Are the coatings safe for health?


The coatings do not contain any VOCs, formaldehydes or other ingredients. The coatings are non-toxic.

What is the thickness of the coating?


The household and construction product lines are applied in two to three layers. These are relatively thin coat films, i.e. the coating is no more than 300µ (microns) / 0.3000000mm, i.e. not even half a millimetre thick.

In the industry, individual lay-ups are used to reduce the temperatures of hot surfaces to the desired temperature. Pipe insulation at 160 °C will have a total coating thickness of 4 mm.

Is the coating UV resistant?


The coating forms a thin membrane on the surface that protects the surfaces from UV erosion. The technology in the coating can successfully reflect sunlight, which is dangerous to human health.

Where can I read the application and surface preparation procedure?


Each THRcoating product has a QR code on the label where you can download the Technical and Material Data Sheet. The Safety Data Sheet and the general Application Manual can also be downloaded from this link.

Can airless equipment be applied?


Application with airless equipment ensures the best application in terms of uniformity and optical design of the coating. However, when applying, it should be taken into account that the overspray can be as low as 20 - 50% of the bucket contents depending on the stand, nozzle and applicator. The minimum flow rate should be 4.3 litres/minute, ideally higher. Ideal nozzles are 519, 529.

Are these coatings used on NASA rockets?


No, they don't. The shuttles have several isolation systems. For example, quartz fibre tiles with a resistance of around 1300°C are commonly used.

What is the history of reflective insulating coatings?


The idea and the first tests of reflective insulating materials date back to the 1950s. The first mentions and tests are attributed to the Moscow Physical-Technical Institute. In USA, mentions are given only from the 1970s/80s when the US Army starts to apply these coatings.

How do I clean the tools used to apply the coating?


Immediately after applying the coating, wash all tools (brushes, rollers, airless equipment, etc.) thoroughly with water.

What happens if I do not follow the instructions in the Technical Data Sheet?


If the surface preparation and application procedure according to the Technical Data Sheet is not followed, cracking or peeling of the coating may occur. Alternatively, the coating will not cure well enough and will not have insulating properties in case of thicker application.

What are THRcoating's product lines?


THRcoating coatings are divided into three series. Industrial, Construction and Household coatings.

Are the products tested and certified?


All products are subject to certification and testing by TZÚS s.p. Prague.

Coating reduces noise levels?


It sounds interesting, but it is. In terms of consistency and composition, coatings are denser than conventional paints. They form a uniform membrane on the surface, which partially limits the transmission of sound through the wall, but at the same time the coating "breathes" and is permeable to water vapour.

Are THRcoating coatings non-flammable?


THRcoating coatings are non-flammable in composition. No smoke is formed and no burning droplets are formed when the building is on fire. Tested according to European standards through the Technical and Building Institute Prague, s.p..

Is it possible to use the coating in the healthcare or food industry?


Yes, it's possible. Coatings are bacteriostatic.

How can coating reduce the carbon footprint?


For heating or cooling, electricity must be generated in power stations. Less energy needed for cooling or heating means less need for electricity generation and therefore less greenhouse gas production. Reducing energy use for cooling or heating also reduces the need for electricity generation and therefore reduces CO2 production.

How must the surface be prepared before application?


Steel surfaces must be degreased, cleaned and free of flaking parts, corrosion, old paint. The coating can then be applied to stable and solid surfaces according to the Technical Data Sheet.

In the construction industry, according to the Technical Data Sheet, the product can be applied to dry, mature and cleaned surfaces treated with a primer.

How do I know if THRcoating ALPHA works?


When applied to the roof and façade of the building, temperatures inside the building will drop during the summer months. The walls and roof cladding will not heat up as much from the sunlight, so there will be no heat transfer inside the building. In the winter, a building painted in this way will retain the heat in the building and not let the cold through its walls into the building. However, THRcoating does not replace the conventional building and insulation structure of the building.

When applied indoors in the house, the temperature inside the property will be perceptibly raised the second day after application in the winter months, thus reducing the temperature at the radiator heads. During the summer months, a comfortable climate will be maintained indoors and the space will not overheat.



Can the coating be used in the context of occupational safety (OSH)?


Designed for industry, ALPHA TEMPER coating is the ideal worker protection for workplace safety. ALPHA TEMPER lowers the surface temperature of surfaces and thus prevents burns when bare skin is touched.

Can it be applied to hot surfaces?


ALPHA TEMPER can be applied to hot surfaces without stopping operation. Application is possible up to a temperature of +220 °C.

Protection against corrosion?


The industrial range contains anticorrosive additives and thus the coating becomes anticorrosive. THRcoating coatings are resistant to corrosive aggressiveness up to grade C5.

How does ALPHA ANTICONDENS coating work?


ALPHA ANTICONDENS coating is used in industrial or food processing applications where the application of the coating will reduce the formation of water condensation on pipes.

Why is the industry coating in thicknesses of 3-4 mm?


In industry we insulate at high temperatures, which are typically around 100 - 200°C, so at these temperatures we need to apply coatings in thicknesses of 3 - 4 mm. If the coating was in a weaker layer there would not be sufficient reduction in surface temperature. At a thickness of 3 - 4 mm the temperature is reduced to ambient temperature and it is then possible to touch the surface with the bare hand.

The coatings contain microspheres which line up in an impermeable line with each individual layer as it cures. Thus, with such a thickness of coating, millions of microspheres are layered on top of each other to ensure that the temperature of the hot pipe or the media inside is not transferred to the surface of the coating.

Can the pipe/equipment be measured under the coating?


Coatings do not contain any elements that would prevent any non-destructive measurement. Thus, the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) test as well as any other measurement methods can be performed over the coating.



Are the coatings breathable to water vapour?


Yes, the entire construction and household range is vapour-permeable in composition. That is to say, the whole building "breathes" and lets water vapour through.

Can THRcoating ALPHA be applied to historic buildings?


ALPHA FACADE products are ideal for application on the facades of historic buildings. Historic buildings have a rugged façade and cannot be insulated in any way. The application of ALPHA FACADE coating gives the facade a new look, the facade coating can be tinted in any way according to the requirements of the Heritage Institute and at the same time prevents overheating of the building in the summer months. In the winter months, the building will not freeze and will not let the heat from the heated areas escape.

How do reflective insulating coatings work in the construction industry?


THRcoating reflective insulating coatings work on the principle of reflection. Therefore, the variables that we count on with traditional thermal insulation do not apply here. Simply put, a reflective insulation coating creates a "reflective layer" on the wall that prevents thermal radiation from escaping through the building structure and reflects it back into the heated space. The reflection significantly raises the temperature of the building structure (wall), thus preventing condensation on the walls, which is the main cause of mould.

Can reflective insulating coating be considered as a substitute for conventional insulation?


Commonly used insulation systems slow down the heat transfer through the conduction. We build a barrier to the heat flow using materials such as polystyrene or mineral wool. However, each insulation only blocks a certain part of the heat flow; when the conventional insulation is thermally saturated, its efficiency decreases and it starts to "let" heat into the open space. An example of this is in loft spaces where the roof heats up to +70°C in the summer months and the heat from the roof sheathing passes through the insulation into the room, where it is subsequently unbearably hot.

The reflective insulating coating works in perfect synergy with conventional insulations and creates a reflective insulating barrier, reflecting sunlight in the summer months and thus preventing overheating of the building. In the winter months, it prevents heat from escaping from the building, thus saving heating energy.

Can the facade of a house in the city centre be painted to prevent temperature islands?


By reflecting heat back into the atmosphere, THRcoating ALPHA's reflective insulating coatings contribute to a better urban environment, reducing the effect of heat islands that arise due to high temperatures in urban areas. This is indirectly related to the improvement of the air, as the reduction in temperature also means less risk and concentration of smog.

Prevents condensation?


The coating distributes the heat throughout the area where it is applied, so there is no water precipitation on the wall surface. By not precipitating water on the wall, mould formation is prevented.

What will be the thickness of the coating on the facade or interior?


In the construction industry, the thickness of paint is always in the tens to hundreds of microns, so for comparison, one coat of paint will be as thick as a sheet of paper. A sheet of paper is 100 microns thick. Normally, the thickness of the coating is in the range of 100 to 300 microns.



Can I handle the app at home?


Yes, anyone can apply ABAMAL household products.

I have high heating costs, can I reduce them with ABAMAL?


With the coating, you will achieve a reduction in heating costs. The ABAMAL coating ensures that heat is reflected back into the room. This prevents the building structure from warming up and heat from escaping from the building. The coating is applied as an interior coating. Just a few days after application you will feel a higher temperature in the room, this is due to the fact that the heat is evenly distributed over the wall and does not escape from the building.

The walls in my house are cold to the touch, will ABAMAL help?


The primary function of ABAMAL coating is to increase the thermal comfort in living rooms while making the wall warmer to the touch after application.

Does the final layer of coating have to be sanded?


The coating does not abrade the wall in any way.

I have painted with ABAMAL, is it possible to repaint with another paint after years?


Repainting ABAMAL with another waterborne paint will reduce the effectiveness of the reflective insulating properties of the paint.

When is it a good idea to apply coatings?


Apply the coating materials according to the Technical Sheet. These are water-based coatings, so they cannot be applied to the facade, for example, when it is freezing outside or the room is +5 °C. The ideal temperature for application is around +20 °C and above.

What is the consumption of ABAMAL?


40 to 80 m² can be painted from one bucket. Consumption depends on the specificity of the substrate and the number of layers. Whether applied by roller or airless device. With airless equipment, the spray rate can vary from 20 to 50% depending on the nozzle, type of equipment, length of hoses, etc.

Can ABAMAL be applied to old lime plasters and coatings?


Before application, it is necessary to evaluate the surface on which you will apply the ABAMAL interior coating. If the plaster is incoherent, falling off or there are already many layers, it is better to scrape off the old paint so that it does not peel off with the old incoherent paint when ABAMAL is applied or dries. Before applying ABAMAL, it is a good idea to prime the surface with ABAMAL Deep Primer or ABAMAL Basic.

How to work with ABAMAL?


The ABAMAL product line is designed for households. ABAMAL can be applied ideally with a flocking roller in two to three coats. For application on conventional plaster we recommend a roller with medium hair. Each substrate and different rollers can form different textures of paint. Or Airless device. It is always necessary to dip the roller into the paint and make a short stroke up and down the wall (short stroke according to the roller dip is about 50 cm). ABAMAL is not applied as a normal paint. This is due to the content of microspheres, which provide reflective insulating properties.

How do I know if ABAMAL works in my home?


When applied indoors in the house, the temperature inside the property will be perceptibly raised the second day after application in the winter months, thus reducing the temperature at the radiator heads. During the summer months, a comfortable climate will be maintained indoors and the space will not overheat.

Won't mold form on the wall?


ABAMAL interior coatings distribute heat evenly over the wall surface. Walls where the coatings are applied are warmer to the touch than walls where the coating has not been applied. When heat is distributed evenly over the wall in this way, condensation does not form on the wall and therefore mould does not form on the wall. At the same time, however, the coating allows water vapour to escape and the wall to breathe.

How to apply on plasterboard or very absorbent surfaces?


Applying any interior coating to drywall is in a category of its own, and there are plenty of expert articles and discussions on the internet about how to paint on drywall. It's not as easy as it may seem. When painting on these absorbent surfaces, paint inconsistency occurs. This is because it is a material where there are different absorbent substrates. The core of the board is made of gypsum, cardboard paper and a putty with which the joints and screws are sealed. And each such surface will suck the paint into itself differently. And it will dry differently. The absorbency of the substrate needs to be perfectly uniform! If the substrate is not perfectly uniform, there will be little coating opacity, shiny spots from different angles, and scribbles. Unfortunately, this always happens when painting with any interior paint on drywall and other similar absorbent surfaces. We recommend applying two layers of deep primer before applying ABAMAL coating. Add white interior coating to the second layer to overlap and unify the substrate. If you are not completely sure if there are no shiny areas on the wall and there is little opacity of the substrate after a few days of drying, paint over the wall with a regular interior paint to unify the surface. After the previous layers have dried completely, apply ABAMAL coating.